Bucharest Forum 2021
10th Anniversary Edition
The Digital, Green and Resilience Revolutions: Enduring Systemic Rivalry or a New Rules-based Order?
9th – 10th of December 2021
The 2021 Bucharest Forum edition marks a double anniversary: 10 years since the organization of the first Bucharest Forum and 15 years since the establishment of the Aspen Institute Romania.
The 10th edition of the Bucharest Forum is scheduled for December 9 – 10, 2021, in a hybrid format. We are delighted to announce that the event will be held under the High Patronage of the President of Romania.
Bucharest Forum is an annual high-level event organized by Aspen Institute Romania and the German Marshall Fund of the US, Bucharest office. Launched in 2012, the mission of the Bucharest Forum is to create a multi-regional platform for innovative, forward-looking thinking on economic and security policies, and for promoting an action-oriented dialogue between governments, private sector and civil society.
While geo-economic politics has always been about power and who has it, never before in the last decades has this been at the backbone of international relations and development. Events of the recent years deepened the rifts between West and East, as well as within these, and the need and fight for power became the main rationale of actions and decisions. Technological developments, natural disasters as well as societal transformations tend to be exploited and analyzed in this key, drawing a picture of continuous confrontation at times with uncertain outcomes.
Yet common threats and opportunities, from the SARS-COV-2 pandemic to technological breakthroughs, should push strategists and officials to look beyond the short term, and design strategies that look at enduring and long-lasting effects. Will these determine a new rules-based international order, as some hope for and predict, or will systemic rivalry endure, and remain the backbone of future developments? The race for power between continents, countries and within societies and even between individuals can either be the engine of common progress, should synergies be accounted for, or the rationale for continuous conflicts, at all levels and in different realms of life.
This edition of the Bucharest Forum invites to a deep and long-term look into the implications and effects of this power struggle in technology, security, economy and human and societal values. Experienced officials and reputable strategists will discuss current developments and future alternative strategies to advance, or at least contain threats to, progress and development.
In particular, the event will address the twin digital and green revolutions which will determine the winners and losers of the current geopolitical competition. Economic models around the world will have to cater to ambitious climate goals in order to remain competitive and sustainable, and only those states and societies able to adapt to this new paradigm will be successful and influential on the world stage. At the same time, the digital transition and technological innovations are reshaping industries and disrupting existing businesses and operating models. The future belongs to those able to integrate in their economic models new trends in the fields of automation, AI, data exchange and e-governance solutions. Bucharest Forum will debate long-term opportunities and challenges for policymakers, business leaders, and citizens alike in the context of the digital and green revolutions.
Another crucial topic will be resilience, which has become the new keyword of the post-pandemic world. The event will analyze methods of improving the resilience of democratic societies in the face of a variety of military and non-military shocks, such as hybrid attacks using cyber and disinformation as tactics, pandemics, and natural disasters. Cooperation between and within states and societies is critical in dealing with such a variety of threats more efficiently.
Over the course of the annual editions organized so far, Bucharest Forum reunited a variety of speakers, high-level officials, international experts and journalists, high ranking private sector representatives as well as members of the civil society and research and academia areas, from Romania and the region, but also from the EU member states, United States of America, Canada, Asia, Africa, fulfilling its mission of building a truly international platform of reflection and dialogue.
Organizers: Aspen Institute Romania, The German Marshall Fund of the United States, Bucharest Office
Event held under the High Patronage of the President of Romania
Institutional Partners: Government of Romania, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania, Ministry of National Defense of Romania, Chamber of Deputies of Romania, European Commission Representation in Romania
Knowledge Partners: The Aspen Institute, Institut Aspen France, Aspen Ananta Centre India, EY Romania, Purdue Center for Tech Diplomacy
Main Partners: Vodafone, Microsoft, Mastercard, UiPath, Modex, Raiffeisen Bank, UniCredit Bank Romania, Enel
Partners: OMV Petrom, Banca Transilvania, MOL, Rompetrol, Neolife, SOCAR, Reveal Marketing Research
Media Partners: AGERPRES, CaleaEuropeana
Day 1. – Thursday 9 December
10.00 – 10.15 EET Introductory remarks
- Florin Pogonaru, Acting Co-President, Aspen Institute Romania – in-person participation
- Alina Inayeh, Director, German Marshall Fund of the US, Bucharest Office – in-person participation
10.15 – 10.45 EET Opening
- Official Message from the President of Romania
delivered by Cosmin Marinescu, Presidential Adviser, Department of Economic and Social Policies, Presidential Administration of Romania – video message
- Jens Stoltenberg, Secretary General, NATO – video message
10.45 – 11.35 EET Panel 1: NATO Strategic Concept
Many argue the COVID_19 pandemic has brought closer a Big Reset that is needed to bring economies, societies and international relations in line with the new realities. Even those who do not adhere to this proposition agree with fundamental changes in the global environment, and to the need to adapt to the present as well as to the future. As the most important political and security organization NATO is looking both inwards and outwards to redesign its role and invigorate its vision, in the midst of external transformations and internal challenges. The panel will discuss this process, in correlation with similar and, hopefully, convergent processes of other major organizations (the European Union first and foremost).
- Vasile Dîncu, Minister of National Defense, Government of Romania – in-person participation
- Douglas D. Jones, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs, U.S. Department of State – video message
- Benedetta Berti, Head of Policy Planning, NATO – virtual participation
- Hanna Hopko, Member of Parliament, Head of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (2014-2019), Ukraine – virtual participation
- Michał Baranowski, Director, German Marshall Fund of the US, Warsaw office – virtual participation
Moderator: Alina Inayeh, Director, German Marshall Fund of the US, Bucharest Office – in-person participation
11.35 – 11.45 EET Coffee Break
11.45 – 12.30 EET Panel 2: Conservatism, Nationalism and Fundamentalism in Modern Societies
Illiberal tendencies in the trans-Atlantic space have gained vigor post-economic crisis of 2008. Over the past few years they started being opposed, with at least an equal vigor, by progressive-liberal trends. Both political currents are taken to extremes, and political extremism to both left and right is getting more shape, leaving moderates, including conservatives, within a very narrow space for debate and action. The panel will discuss current political tendencies, as well as the impact of their extreme manifestations on both societies and international relations.
- Jean-Christophe Bas, Founder and CEO, Connecters for Peace; Executive Board Member, Aspen France – virtual participation
- Radosław Fogiel, Executive Vice-President, European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) Party – virtual participation
- Thibault Muzergues, Europe Program Director, International Republican Institute – virtual participation
Moderator: Cristina Cileacu, Journalist, Digi24 – in-person participation
12.30 – 13.00 EET Power Conversation with Steven van Groningen, President & CEO, Raiffeisen Bank, moderated by Clara Volintiru, Director, Aspen New Economy and Society Program – in-person participation
Steven van Groningen, President & CEO of Raiffeisen Bank is known for his extensive expertise on the Central and Eastern Europe banking sector. He has been married to a Romanian Olympian since 1986 and has lived in Romania for more than 20 years, contributing to its civil society and expressing his appreciation for the country and its people. The conversation will focus on both the progress of the Romanian banking sector and economy in the years Mr. van Groningen has been active in the country, as well as on perspectives for the future, looking at what needs to be done to make sure Romania capitalizes on existing opportunities in the new economy.
13.00 – 13.45 EET Power Conversation on Digitalization, Innovation, Start-ups
The pandemic has made it clear that accelerating the digitalization of both the public and private sector must become a priority around the world. There is a link between digitalization and the development of innovative services and products. To foster sustainable economic growth, societies must finance both the digital transformation in all its aspects and innovation, in particular the creation of an ecosystem of promising start-ups. This conversation will explore how Romania can leapfrog in these areas, benefiting among others from available funding from the National Resilience and Recovery Plan.
- Sabin Sărmaș, President, Committee for Information Technologies and Communications, Romanian Parliament – in-person participation
- Achilleas Kanaris, CEO, Vodafone Romania – in-person participation
- Bogdan Putinică, General Manager, Microsoft Romania – in-person participation
- Sergiu Manea, CEO & Chairman of Management Board, BCR – in-person participation
Moderator: Radu Puchiu, Director, Aspen Technology & Society Program – in-person participation
13.45 – 14.30 EET Lunch Break
14.30 – 15.00 EET High – Level Conversation on The Frontier Next: Progress through Technology and Innovation – virtual conversation
- Keith Krach, Chairman, Purdue Center for Tech Diplomacy, Former U.S. Under Secretary of State; CEO, DocuSign & Ariba – virtual participation
Moderator: Kim Dozier, Global Affairs Analyst, CNN – virtual participation
15.30 – 16.30 EET Panel 3: Financing Sustainable Recovery and the Digital and Climate Transformations
Both international trade and international financial markets have been severely disrupted by the pandemic, which affected supply and demand conditions as well as productivity. At the same time, the new economic model across the world will be fundamentally linked to the climate economy, and both public and private stakeholders can contribute to and benefit from the new financial instruments aimed at the massive investments required for a greener economy. The panel will discuss the latest evolutions as well as the outlook for the recovery of international trade and financial markets, while also looking at new developments brought by the emphasis on climate goals. At the same time, discussions will also analyze the resilience of the international trade and finance, looking at issues such as disruptions in supply chains and how to address them.
Opening Remarks: Valdis Dombrovskis, Executive Vice-President, European Commission – video message
- Olga Algayerova, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) – virtual participation
- Christian Kettel Thomsen, Vice-President, European Investment Bank – virtual participation
- Mark Davis, Regional Director Romania & Bulgaria, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) – virtual participation
- Liviu Voinea, Senior Advisor, International Monetary Fund – virtual participation
- Andrei Eftimie, Associate Partner, Transaction Advisory Services, EY Romania – virtual participation
Moderator: Clara Volintiru, Director, Aspen New Economy and Society Program – in-person participation
16.30 – 16.45 EET Coffee Break
16.45 – 17.45 EET Panel 4: Technology, AI, and Innovation
Technological innovations are reshaping industries and disrupting existing businesses and operating models. Technology has a powerful impact on citizens, shaping societies and presenting a series of opportunities and challenges for policymakers and businesses. The panel will analyze the impact of technology (including AI, automation and robotics) on the public sector and businesses, looking at how the digital transformation can facilitate both economic growth and social benefits. Challenges posed by new technologies will also be discussed, looking in particular at improving resilience in the context of technology-related threats.
- Yll Bajraktari, CEO, Special Competitive Studies Project; Former Executive Director, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence – virtual participation
- Cecilia Bonefeld-Dahl, Director General, DIGITALEUROPE – virtual participation
- Mihai Ivașcu, CEO & Co-founder, Modex – virtual participation
- Răzvan Atim, General Manager Eastern Europe, UiPath – virtual participation
- Cristian Cârstoiu, Chief Innovation Officer, Partner, Ernst & Young – in-person participation
- Bogdan Patriniche, Chief Executive Officer, Credit Sky
Moderator: Radu Puchiu, Director, Aspen Technology & Society Program – in-person participation
18.00 – 19.00 EET Panel 5 (parallel): NextGen Initiative – Report Launch – in partnership with The Aspen Institute
The NextGen Network convened talented young leaders to bring the NextGen perspective on the current state—and possible future for—the transatlantic relationship. Over a series of workshops, NextGen members identified four areas critical to the transatlantic relationship: strengthening democracy, building economic opportunity, increasing sustainability, and leading on issues of technology. The panel will discuss the insights of this Next Generation of leaders on these identified challenges and preview the upcoming NextGen Transatlantic Relationship Report which will detail the key recommendations from the group while providing an expert-led panel promoting inter-generational dialogue.
- Beatriz Camacho-Ávila, Manager for Southern Europe, European Institute of Innovation and Technology – virtual participation
- Adrian Shahbaz, Director of Technology and Democracy for the Freedom House – virtual participation
- Caroline Sagalchik, Threat Intelligence Analyst, Facebook – virtual participation
Moderator: Suzanne Lynch, co-author of Playbook Brussels, POLITICO – virtual participation
19.00 – 19.30 EET Power Conversation on the Concept of Belonging – virtual conversation
Responding to the global moral reckoning on race over the past few years in the United States of America, the national reckoning on #racism and other forms of injustice in America has generated a renewed focus on the principles of #inclusion, #equity, and #diversity (IE&D) across sectors—from business to nonprofits to government and beyond. Many organizations are evaluating their priorities and practices through this lens and making laudatory commitments to IE&D across their work. These efforts are necessary, and we are taking these same steps. At the same time, we believe it is also critical to place an emphasis on the outcome we seek from these commitments: a society where everyone belongs and has equitable opportunities to thrive.
- Cordell Carter, II, Executive Director, Socrates Program, The Aspen Institute – virtual participation
- Roxana Voicu – Dorobanțu, Director, Aspen “Skill Shift Towards a Future Good Society” Program – virtual participation
Day 2. – Friday 10 December
10.00 – 10.20 EET – Introductory remarks
- Mircea Geoană, Deputy Secretary General, NATO – video message
- Nicolae Ciucă, Prime Minister of Romania – video message
- Marcel Ciolacu, President of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies, Romanian Parliament – in-person participation
10.20 – 11.15 EET Panel 1: Democracy, Security and Resilience
Societal developments in the trans-Atlantic space over the past few years have fueled movements and schools of thought that go against democratic principles and values, both philosophically and policy wise. Although present, visible and vociferous in all countries in this space, some societies prove more resilient in the face of autocratic and/or nationalistic tendencies than others. The panel will look at both these tendencies and the aspects of political, economic and social spheres that render some countries more stamina against anti-democratic endeavors.
Maroš Šefčovič, Vice-President for Inter-institutional Relations and Foresight, European Commission – video message
Miguel Berger, State Secretary, German Federal Foreign Office – video message
- Yves Mathieu, Founder and Director, Missions Publiques – virtual participation
- Clara Volintiru, Director, Aspen New Economy and Society Program – virtual participation
Moderator: Terry Martin, International TV News Anchor – virtual participation
11.15 – 11.30 EET Introductory remarks: Bogdan Aurescu, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania – video message
11.30 – 12.30 EET Panel 2: Building resilience in the Eastern Neighborhood – in partnership with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania
The upcoming Eastern Partnership summit invites at further reflection upon EU’s relations with its partners in the East. The investment in governance, economy, security, people to people contacts in both the multilateral and the bilateral dimensions of the Partnership supports the reform efforts of those partners that are willing and able to deepen the ties with the Union. Since the adoption of the EU Global Strategy, the paradigm of institution building shifted rather to supporting the resilience of Union’s partners. The endeavor of strengthening resilience is challenged – in varying degrees – in the case of some Eastern partners that have to cope with protracted conflicts. In such a rather complex context, both the EU and its Eastern partners have to work towards strengthening some of the key elements of resilience: social trust, legitimacy of governance actors and effective design of governance institutions. The panel will analyze the challenges to strengthening the resilience of the partners in the East, while seeking to identify those measures that exists or could be built in the context of the Eastern Partnership, as well as with the support of other third actors, such as NATO.
- Dan Neculăescu, Secretary of State, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania – in-person participation
- Michael Siebert, Managing Director, European External Action Service – virtual participation
- Andrius Kubilius, Chair, Delegation to the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, European Parliament – virtual participation
- Jaroslav Kurfürst, Ambassador, Special Envoy for the Eastern Partnership, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic – virtual participation
- Sergi Kapanadze, Founder, Georgia’s Reforms Associates, Former Vice-Speaker of the Georgian Parliament – virtual participation
Moderator: Radu Tudor, Political and Defense Analyst – in-person participation
12.30 – 12.45 EET Coffee break
12.45 – 13.30 EET: Panel 3 (parallel): Healthcare Systems’ Sustainability in Pandemic Times
The SARS-COV-2 pandemic has proved that healthcare systems across the world need to increase their sustainability in order to be able to rapidly respond to a wide variety of threats. To do so, improvements are needed in terms of: responsible public health policies; financing the healthcare system with a focus on financing prevention and innovation; as well as securing uninterrupted access to medical services to all categories of patients, including chronic patients. The panel will discuss possible measures to be taken in Romania and abroad in order to increase the resilience of health systems and their ability to cope with extended pandemics.
- Prof. univ. dr. Alexandru Rafila, Minister of Health, Government of Romania – in-person participation
- Mario Monti, Chair of the Pan-European Commission on Health and Sustainable Development, WHO Regional Office for Europe; Former Prime Minister of Italy– virtual participation
- Radu Rășinar, Area Vice President for Central and Eastern Europe, AstraZeneca – in-person participation
- Mihnea Rădulescu, Business Director, Vodafone Romania – in-person participation
Moderator: Vlad Mixich, Health Policy Expert – in-person participation
12.30 – 13.30 EET: Panel 4 (parallel): Energy, Climate Change and the New Climate Economy
In Europe and, increasingly, around the globe, economic models have to cater to climate goals, signaling the transition to a green, sustainable paradigm as well as a shift towards new means of production and consumption. This provides significant opportunities but also poses important challenges to the public and private sectors alike. New financing tools and methods are being developed to support reforms that are necessary in the green transition and to finance innovative ways of producing energy, as well as economic sectors connected to the transition. In Europe, the Green Deal and the ambitious set of policy initiatives initiated in recent years will bring the rapid change of the energy sector, and there will be both winners and losers of this transition. To capitalize on new opportunities, fully developed industrial and energy sector national strategies are required. Discussions will focus on ways in which economic models in Romania, Europe and globally can adapt to the transition while mitigating the risks associated with such a major shift.
- Virgil Popescu, Minister of Energy, Government of Romania – video message
- Cristian Bușoi, Chair, Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, European Parliament – virtual participation
- Dan Drăgan, Secretary of State, Ministry of Energy, Government of Romania – virtual participation
- Juergen Braunstein, Fellow, Geopolitics of Energy Project, Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center – virtual participation
- Massimo Bettanin, Partner, Climate Change & Sustainability Services in CEE, EY – virtual participation
- Carlo Pignoloni, CEO & Country Manager Enel Romania – virtual participation
- Camelia Ene, Country Chairman & CEO, MOL Romania – virtual participation
- Alexandru Maximescu, Public and Regulatory Affairs Director, OMV Petrom – in-person participation
- Cosmin Ghiță, CEO, Nuclearelectrica – virtual participation
Moderator: Cristian Pîrvulescu, Director, Aspen Energy & Sustainability Program – in-person participation
13.30 – 14.15 EET Lunch
14.15 – 15.15 EET Panel 5 (parallel): Hybrid and Cyber Threats, Disinformation
Many argue we are at war. A war that is conducted not militarily, in the classical operation theaters, but through many other methods meant to weaken the cohesion of the trans-Atlantic and European space, and the strength of each country individually. A war that alters economies, armies, as well as the hearts and minds of citizens. While we know our opponents, as well as almost all of their tactics and methods, we seem not to be prepared, or willing, enough to device and employ methods to better resist and counter these attacks. The panel will discuss the extent of current threats as well as potential counter measures and obstacles that stand in the way of their implementation.
- Carmen Romero, Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy, NATO – virtual participation
- Dragoș Tudorache, Chair of the Special Committee on Artificial Intelligence in a Digital Age, European Parliament, Vice-Chair, Renew Europe Group – video message
- Dan Cîmpean, Acting Director, National Cyber Security Directorate, Romania; Chairman, EU CEF Telecom Cybersecurity Board – virtual participation
- Ryan Merkley, Managing Director, Aspen Digital, The Aspen Institute US – virtual participation
- Alina Bârgăoanu, Dean, Faculty of Communication and Public Relations, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration in Bucharest – in-person participation
Moderator: Tyson Barker, Head of Technology and Global Affairs Program, DGAP – virtual participation
14.15 – 15.15 EET Panel 6 (parallel): Recovery, Resilience and the Future of Europe – Defining the Level of Ambition
The European Union is, once again, in a process of reinventing itself, strengthening its political and economic role internationally. Internal adjustments are needed to achieve this, in economic, security and societal sphere. While there are many conversations on European defense, a possible (or impossible) European army, there are only a few on the need for a new social contract and a new economic model. The European Commission has started a new strategy, developing a Strategic Compass that will, many hope, help see, choose and follow the way forward, in parallel with a citizen-led (or so it is described) process of looking at the Future of Europe. The panel will discuss these efforts, in the context of non-linear developments in technology, society and international relations, among others.
- Florin Spătaru, Minister of Economy, Government of Romania – in-person participation
- Adina Vălean, Commissioner for Transport, European Commission – video message
- Anže Logar, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia – video message
- David McAllister, Chair of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, European Parliament – virtual participation
- Daniel Hamilton, President, Transatlantic Leadership Network; Senior Fellow, Johns Hopkins University SAIS – virtual participation
- Benedikt Franke, Chief Executive Officer, Munich Security Conference – virtual participation
Moderator: Robert Lupițu, Editor in Chief, Calea Europeană – in-person participation
15.15 – 16.00 EET Panel 7: Strategic Competition in the Asia – Pacific Area
When discussing the state of international relations and the global balance of power, President Joe Biden’s administration has increasingly been referring to “strategic competition”, as opposed to President Trump’s “great power competition”. While the concept is still not fully developed, what is clear is that relations between the US and its regional Pacific allies, on the one hand, and China, on the other, are still marked by mistrust. This is the case in terms of both political and economic relations, while territorial disputes and military tensions are a constant reality. The panel asks what the future of competition in the Southwest Pacific Area will look like, while also looking at the role of other regional powers which have an interest in checking Chinese power, such as India.
- Alexander Downer, Executive Chair, International School for Government, King’s College London, Former Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Australian Government – virtual participation
- Lt Gen S L Narasimhan (Retd), Member, National Security Advisory Board, Government of India and Director General, Centre for Contemporary China Studies – virtual participation
- Roland Freudenstein, Vice President, GLOBSEC – virtual participation
- Henry Huiyao Wang, Founder and President, Center for China and Globalization – virtual participation
- Moderator: Vivian Salama, National Security Reporter, The Wall Street Journal – virtual participation
16.15 – 17.15 EET Panel 8: Launching the Romanian Worldwide Innovation Network
For a structural change of the Romanian economy towards producing more added value, Romanian start-ups and SMEs must focus on innovative services and products. While many Romanians proved to be energetic innovators, much of this talent has gone abroad in search of more lucrative opportunities. Aspen Institute Romania seeks to connect Romanian innovation champions living abroad and willing to offer strategic guidance and support, to local entrepreneurs and ecosystem builders, in order to help shape the next generation of leaders in innovation in the country. This panel seeks to analyze ways in which the newly launched Romanian Worldwide Innovation Network (R WIN) can share expertise and knowledge, connecting leaders and ideas for a competitive and innovative Romania.
- Mircea Geoană, Deputy Secretary General, NATO – video message
- Daniel Dines, Co-Founder & Chief Executive Officer, UiPath – video message
- Maria Ligor, Ambassador of Romania to Finland, Former Minister Delegate for Diaspora – virtual participation
- Adrian Bot, Chief Scientific Officer, Executive Vice President of Research and Development, Capstan Therapeutics – virtual participation
- Andrei Ruckenstein, Professor and Chair, Department of Physics, Boston University – virtual participation
- Ștefan Constantinescu, President, Federation of European Academies of Medicine – virtual participation
- Andrei Roth, Commercial Pricing Director & Program Manager, UiPath Automation Awards CEE & Turkey – in-person participation
Moderator: Diana Rusu, Private Sector Development Specialist, World Bank Group / Aspen Fellow – in-person participation